Exploit Title: Secure Web Gateway 10.2.11 - Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)
Product: Secure Web Gateway
Affected Versions: 10.2.11, potentially other versions
Fixed Versions: 10.2.17, 11.2.6, 12.0.1
Vulnerability Type: Cross-Site Scripting
Security Risk: high
Vendor URL:
Vendor Status: fixed version released
Advisory URL:
Advisory Status: published
CVE: CVE-2023-0214


"Skyhigh Security Secure Web Gateway (SWG) is the intelligent,
cloud-native web security solution that connects and secures your
workforce from malicious websites and cloud apps—from anywhere, any
application, and any device."

(from the vendor's homepage)

More Details

The Secure Web Gateway's (SWG) block page, which is displayed when a
request or response is blocked by a rule, can contain static files such
as images, stylesheets or JavaScript code. These files are embedded
using special URL paths. Consider the following excerpt of a block page:

<!-- FileName: index.html
     Language: [en]
  <meta content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" http-equiv="Content-Type">
  <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=7" />
  <title>McAfee Web Gateway - Notification</title>
  <script src="/mwg-internal/de5fs23hu73ds/files/javascript/sw.js" type="text/javascript" ></script>
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="/mwg-internal/de5fs23hu73ds/files/default/stylesheet.css" />

Static content is loaded from URL paths prefixed with
"/mwg-internal/de5fs23hu73ds/". It was discovered that paths with this
prefix are intercepted and directly handled by the SWG no matter on
which domain they are accessed. While the prefix can be configured in
the SWG, attackers can also obtain it using another currently
undisclosed vulnerability.

By reverse engineering the file "" and analysing JavaScript
code, it was possible to derive the API of the "Ssos" plugin's
"SetLoginToken" action. Through the following call using the
command-line HTTP client curl, the behaviour of the plugin was further

$ curl --proxy -i ''
HTTP/1.0 200 OK
P3P: p
Connection: Keep-Alive
Set-Cookie: MwgSso=v; Path=/; Max-Age=240;
Content-Type: application/javascript
Content-Length: 2
X-Frame-Options: deny


The response embeds the values of the three URL parameters "v", "c" and
"p". The value for "p" is embedded as value of the "P3P" header, the
value of "c" as the response body and the value of "v" as the value
of the cookie "MwgSso".

It is also possible to include newline or carriage return characters in
the parameter value which are not encoded in the output. Consequently,
if the value of the parameter "p" contains a line break, arbitrary
headers can be injected. If two line breaks follow, an arbitrary body
can be injected. If a suitable "Content-Length" header is injected, the
remaining headers and body of the original response will be ignored by
the browser. This means that apart from the initial "P3P" header, an
arbitrary response can be generated. For example, a page containing
JavaScript code could be returned, resulting in a cross-site scripting

Consequently, attackers can construct URL paths that can be appended to
any domain and cause an arbitrary response to be returned if the URL is
accessed through the SWG. This could be exploited by distributing such
URLs or even by offering a website which performs an automatic redirect
to any other website using such a URL. As a result, the SWG exposes its
users to self-induced cross-site scripting vulnerabilities in any

Proof of Concept

In the following request, the "p" parameter is used to inject suitable
"Content-Type" and "Content-Length" headers, as well as an arbitrary
HTML response body.

$ curl --proxy ' text/html%0aContent-Length: 27%0a%0a<h1>RedTeam Pentesting</h1>'
HTTP/1.0 200 OK
P3P: p
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 27

<h1>RedTeam Pentesting</h1>

As mentioned above, the HTTP response body could also include JavaScript
code designed to interact with the domain specified in the URL resulting
in a cross-site scripting vulnerability.




According to the vendor, the vulnerability is mitigated in versions
10.2.17, 11.2.6 and 12.0.1 of the Secure Web Gateway. This was not
verified by RedTeam Pentesting GmbH. The vendor's security bulletin can
be found at the following URL:

Security Risk

The vulnerability could be used to perform cross-site scripting attacks
against users of the SWG in context of any domain. Attackers only need
to convince users to open a prepared URL or visit an attacker's website
that could perform an automatic redirect to an exploit URL. This exposes
any website visited through the SWG to the various risks and
consequences of a cross-site scripting vulnerability such as account
takeover. As a result, this vulnerability poses a high risk.


2022-07-29 Vulnerability identified
2022-10-20 Customer approved disclosure to vendor
2022-10-20 Vulnerability was disclosed to the vendor
2023-01-17 Patch released by vendor for versions 10.2.17, 11.2.6 and
2023-01-26 Detailed advisory released by RedTeam Pentesting GmbH

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