RedTeam Pentesting identified a vulnerability which allows attackers to  
craft URLs to any third-party website that result in arbitrary content  
to be injected into the response when accessed through the Secure Web  
Gateway. While it is possible to inject arbitrary content types, the  
primary risk arises from JavaScript code allowing for cross-site  
Product: Secure Web Gateway  
Affected Versions: 10.2.11, potentially other versions  
Fixed Versions: 10.2.17, 11.2.6, 12.0.1  
Vulnerability Type: Cross-Site Scripting  
Security Risk: high  
Vendor URL:  
Vendor Status: fixed version released  
Advisory URL:  
Advisory Status: published  
CVE: CVE-2023-0214  
"Skyhigh Security Secure Web Gateway (SWG) is the intelligent,  
cloud-native web security solution that connects and secures your  
workforce from malicious websites and cloud apps—from anywhere, any  
application, and any device."  
(from the vendor's homepage)  
More Details  
The Secure Web Gateway's (SWG) block page, which is displayed when a  
request or response is blocked by a rule, can contain static files such  
as images, stylesheets or JavaScript code. These files are embedded  
using special URL paths. Consider the following excerpt of a block page:  
<!-- FileName: index.html  
Language: [en]  
<meta content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" http-equiv="Content-Type">  
<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=7" />  
<title>McAfee Web Gateway - Notification</title>  
<script src="/mwg-internal/de5fs23hu73ds/files/javascript/sw.js" type="text/javascript" ></script>  
<link rel="stylesheet" href="/mwg-internal/de5fs23hu73ds/files/default/stylesheet.css" />  
Static content is loaded from URL paths prefixed with  
"/mwg-internal/de5fs23hu73ds/". It was discovered that paths with this  
prefix are intercepted and directly handled by the SWG no matter on  
which domain they are accessed. While the prefix can be configured in  
the SWG, attackers can also obtain it using another currently  
undisclosed vulnerability.  
By reverse engineering the file "" and analysing JavaScript  
code, it was possible to derive the API of the "Ssos" plugin's  
"SetLoginToken" action. Through the following call using the  
command-line HTTP client curl, the behaviour of the plugin was further  
$ curl --proxy -i ''  
HTTP/1.0 200 OK  
P3P: p  
Connection: Keep-Alive  
Set-Cookie: MwgSso=v; Path=/; Max-Age=240;  
Content-Type: application/javascript  
Content-Length: 2  
X-Frame-Options: deny  
The response embeds the values of the three URL parameters "v", "c" and  
"p". The value for "p" is embedded as value of the "P3P" header, the  
value of "c" as the response body and the value of "v" as the value  
of the cookie "MwgSso".  
It is also possible to include newline or carriage return characters in  
the parameter value which are not encoded in the output. Consequently,  
if the value of the parameter "p" contains a line break, arbitrary  
headers can be injected. If two line breaks follow, an arbitrary body  
can be injected. If a suitable "Content-Length" header is injected, the  
remaining headers and body of the original response will be ignored by  
the browser. This means that apart from the initial "P3P" header, an  
arbitrary response can be generated. For example, a page containing  
JavaScript code could be returned, resulting in a cross-site scripting  
Consequently, attackers can construct URL paths that can be appended to  
any domain and cause an arbitrary response to be returned if the URL is  
accessed through the SWG. This could be exploited by distributing such  
URLs or even by offering a website which performs an automatic redirect  
to any other website using such a URL. As a result, the SWG exposes its  
users to self-induced cross-site scripting vulnerabilities in any  
Proof of Concept  
In the following request, the "p" parameter is used to inject suitable  
"Content-Type" and "Content-Length" headers, as well as an arbitrary  
HTML response body.  
$ curl --proxy ' text/html%0aContent-Length: 27%0a%0a<h1>RedTeam Pentesting</h1>'  
HTTP/1.0 200 OK  
P3P: p  
Content-Type: text/html  
Content-Length: 27  
<h1>RedTeam Pentesting</h1>  
As mentioned above, the HTTP response body could also include JavaScript  
code designed to interact with the domain specified in the URL resulting  
in a cross-site scripting vulnerability.  
According to the vendor, the vulnerability is mitigated in versions  
10.2.17, 11.2.6 and 12.0.1 of the Secure Web Gateway. This was not  
verified by RedTeam Pentesting GmbH. The vendor's security bulletin can  
be found at the following URL:  
Security Risk  
The vulnerability could be used to perform cross-site scripting attacks  
against users of the SWG in context of any domain. Attackers only need  
to convince users to open a prepared URL or visit an attacker's website  
that could perform an automatic redirect to an exploit URL. This exposes  
any website visited through the SWG to the various risks and  
consequences of a cross-site scripting vulnerability such as account  
takeover. As a result, this vulnerability poses a high risk.  
2022-07-29 Vulnerability identified  
2022-10-20 Customer approved disclosure to vendor  
2022-10-20 Vulnerability was disclosed to the vendor  
2023-01-17 Patch released by vendor for versions 10.2.17, 11.2.6 and  
2023-01-26 Detailed advisory released by RedTeam Pentesting GmbH  
RedTeam Pentesting GmbH  
RedTeam Pentesting offers individual penetration tests performed by a  
team of specialised IT-security experts. Hereby, security weaknesses in  
company networks or products are uncovered and can be fixed immediately.  
As there are only few experts in this field, RedTeam Pentesting wants to  
share its knowledge and enhance the public knowledge with research in  
security-related areas. The results are made available as public  
security advisories.  
More information about RedTeam Pentesting can be found at:  
Working at RedTeam Pentesting  
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in Aachen, Germany. If you are interested please visit:  
RedTeam Pentesting GmbH Tel.: +49 241 510081-0  
Alter Posthof 1 Fax : +49 241 510081-99  
52062 Aachen  
Germany Registergericht: Aachen HRB 14004  
Geschäftsführer: Patrick Hof, Jens Liebchen